The initial meeting was on the battlefield as the Caliphate swept away the eastern provinces of the Byzantine Empire.As the Islamic military impetus petered out the two civilizations began a long period of mutual distrust interspaced with periods of war and a grudging status quo.
As the Byzantine Empire disintegrated, the citizens and theologians within the empire began to take note of Islam more and more.
There was an increase in awareness in all sections of society.
The final years of Byzantium witnessed the most accurate and extensive writings on Islam as the Byzantines attempted to challenge Islam on the intellectual level.
Despite the long history between the two civilizations little has been done in analysing the literary response to Islam by the Byzantines.
Some of the specifically polemical works have been studied but little else.
In order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between Islam and Byzantium the spectrum of Byzantine literature needs to be surveyed and analysed. Many Byzantines would never have seen a real life Muslim.
Their encounters would usually have consisted of contacts to travelling merchants or otherwise military encounters.
However, the frontier was more fluid for Orthodox Christians.
Which of the following statements comes closest to your belief about God -- you believe in God, you don't believe in God, but you do believe in a universal spirit or higher power, or you don't believe in either?
comes closer to your view -- [ROTATED: a presidential candidate's views on evolution are a legitimate indicator of whether he or she is qualified to be president, (or) a presidential candidate's views on evolution are not really relevant and therefore should not be discussed as part of the campaign]?
Which of the following best describes you -- [ROTATED: you have always had the same religious preference, you have switched from one religious preference to another, or you have moved away from any religion whatsoever]?