During the later half of the 19th century, a competing hypothesis proposed a Turkic affinity of Hungarian. Persian dáje ‘wet nurse’), and nád ‘reed’ (from late Middle Iranian; cf. A small number of anthropologists disputed this theory, such as Hungarian historian and archaeologist Gyula László who claimed that geological data from pollen analysis seems to contradict placing the ancient homeland of the Hungarians near the Urals.Following an academic debate known as Az ugor-török háború ("the Ugric-Turkic battle"), the Finno-Ugric hypothesis was concluded the sounder of the two, foremost based on work by the German linguist József Budenz The Hungarians gradually changed their lifestyle from settled hunters to nomadic pastoralists (cattle, sheep), probably as a result of early contacts with Iranian nomads (Scythians, Sarmatians). However, increasing archaeological evidence from present-day southern Bashkortostan found in the previous decades confirms the existence of Hungarian settlements between the Volga River and Ural Mountains.In Hungarian, Iranian loans date back to the time immediately following the breakup of Ugric and probably span well over a millennium. The Onogurs (and Bulgars) later had a great influence on the language, especially between the 5th-9th centuries.
szó ‘word’, from Turkic, daru ‘crane’, from the related Permic languages), and includes words borrowed from Oghur Turkic, e.g. Turkic loans from this period come mainly from the Pechenegs and Cumanians who settled in Hungary during the 12th-13th centuries; e.g., koboz ‘cobza’ (cf.
Turkish kopuz ‘lute’), komondor ‘mop dog’ ( The first written accounts of Hungarian, mostly personal and place names, are dated back to the 10th century.
Hungarians also had their own writing system, the Old Hungarian script, but no significant texts remain from that time, as the usual medium of writing, wooden sticks, is perishable.
The Kingdom of Hungary was founded in 1000, by Stephen I of Hungary.
The country was a western-styled Christian (Roman Catholic) state, and Latin held an important position, as was usual in the Middle Ages.
The Latin script was adopted to write the Hungarian language and Latin influenced the language.The earliest remaining fragments of the language are found in the establishing charter of the abbey of Tihany from 1055, mixed into Latin text.The first extant text fully written in Hungarian is the Funeral Sermon and Prayer, written in the 1190s.Hungarian is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union.Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarian people in neighboring countries (especially in Romania, Slovakia, Serbia and by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide.Like Finnish and Estonian, it belongs to the Uralic language family, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.