To comply with Wikipedia's lead section guidelines, please consider modifying the lead to provide an accessible overview of the article's key points in such a way that it can stand on its own as a concise version of the article. tribe and is managed via agreements with the United States Congress as a sovereign Native American nation.
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In English, the official name for the area was "Navajo Indian Reservation," as outlined in Article II of the 1868 Navajo Treaty.
On April 15, 1969, the official name used by the government and displayed on the seal was changed to "Navajo Nation." In 1994, a proposal to change the official designation from "Navajo" to "Diné" was rejected by the Tribal Council.
It was remarked that the name Diné represented the time of suffering before the Long Walk, and that Navajo is the appropriate designation for the future.
After the Long Walk and the Navajo return from their imprisonment in Bosque Redondo, the "Navajo Indian Reservation" was established according to the Treaty of 1868 with the United States.
The government determined that land "left over" after all members had received allotments was to be considered surplus and available for sale to non-Native Americans.
At the same time, the tribal government was to be disbanded. It was controversial and is widely considered to be a failure, resulting in the breakup and loss of much Native American land holdings and disrupting and weakening their societies.
While the Navajo reservation proper was excluded from the act's provisions, the eastern border became a patchwork of reservation and non-reservation land, known as a "checkerboard" area.
The Navajo people's tradition of governance is rooted in their clan and oral history, from before the Spanish occupation of Dinetah, through to the July 25, 1868, Congressional ratification of the Navajo Treaty with President Andrew Johnson, signed by Barboncito, Armijo, and other chiefs and headmen present.
The borders were defined as the 37th parallel in the north; the southern border as a line running through Fort Defiance; the eastern border as a line running through Fort Lyon; and in the west as longitude 109°30′.
the following district of country, to wit: bounded on the north by the 37th degree of north latitude, south by an east and west line passing through the site of old Fort Defiance, in Canon Bonito, east by the parallel of longitude which, if prolonged south, would pass through old Fort Lyon, or the Ojo-de-oso, Bear Spring, and west by a parallel of longitude about 109' 30" west of Greenwich, provided it embraces the outlet of the Canon-de-Chilly [Canyon de Chelly], which canyon is to be all included in this reservation, shall be, and the same hereby, set apart for the use and occupation of the Navajo tribe of Indians, and for such other friendly tribes or individual Indians as from time to time they may be willing, with the consent of the United States, to admit among them; and the United States agrees that no persons except those herein so authorized to do, and except such officers, soldiers agents, and employees of the Government, or of the Indians, as may be authorized to enter upon Indian reservations in discharge of duties imposed by law, or the orders of the President, shall ever be permitted to pass over, settle upon, or reside in, the territory described in this article.
A significant population of Navajo still resided along the Little Colorado and Colorado rivers, as well as on Naatsisʼáán (Navajo Mountain).