The problems encountered by interracial couples are often the result of negative societal attitudes about interracial relationships.
Black-Caucasian unions have the lowest frequency of occurrence because of longstanding negative beliefs about these marriages.
In addition, there is some question as to whether or not partners in interracial relationships reciprocate love (Gaines et al. Given that the dominant culture tends to disdain black-Caucasian unions, it is difficult to imagine how these couples are able to maintain their relationships.
Asian Americans have also experienced difficulties in their interracial marriages.
Asian Americans engage in more interracial relationships than any other racial or ethnic group in the United States. Even though the results of these cases made interracial marriages legal, the negative societal perspective on such unions has been slow to change.
Laws forbidding interracial marriages between Asians and Caucasians were common in the United States. Bok-Lim Kim (1998) points out that since World War II, marriages between Asian women (specifically women from Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, and Vietnam) and U. military men have become a legacy of United States military involvement.
A similar fear is expressed by African-American men and women.
As African-American men and women increase their level of education and move to higher economic levels, fewer and fewer members of their race are available for marriage.This often leads to frustration on the part of African Americans who seek to marry someone of their own race, and also leads to increased levels of out-marriage, as increases in income and educational levels occur.Some of the difficulties experienced by interracial couples are unique and a direct result of the interracial experience.For example, in 1901 California extended the 1850 Marriage Regulation Act to include Mongolians (i.e., Chinese, Japanese, Koreans), and in 1933 the law was further extended to include Malays (i.e., Filipinos) (Kitano, Fugino, and Sato 1998). He notes that many of those marriages took place because of the low socioeconomic status of many of the women who lived near U. military bases, and the low self-esteem experienced as a result of their low economic conditions.These laws, like all other anti-miscegenation laws, were overturned following a state judicial decision in California (Perez v. He also points out that these interracial marriages displayed undaunted courage and optimism in spite of the obstacles they faced due to language and cultural differences and the lack of support from their families and communities in both countries.However, Kim also points out that the Asian women often carry the burden of cultural norms that provide severe penalties for marriage outside their ethnic group (out-marriages).